Consanguineous marriage is defined as inbreeding between second cousins or closer. In such families there will be a potential increase in the autosomal recessive traits with its lethal effect, with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in the new generation. Inherited bleeding disorders (InBDs) are rare complicated diseases, difficult and expensive to treat, the defect usually due to quantitative or qualitative deficiency of clotting factors, platelets or fibrinolysis. This study attempts to assess the diversity, the frequency and the clinical features of inherited bleeding disorders (InBDs) in central part of Iraq and to determine the state of consanguineous marriage.
Materials and Methods
This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the National Center of Hematology NCH, Baghdad, Iraq between June2014 and June 2017. In total, 256 pediatrics and adult patients were included. Full bleeding history, family history, drug history and consanguineous marriage were recorded and followed by medical examination. First-line laboratory tests were performed and then were followed by further tests included mixing study, lupus anticoagulant testing, clotting factor activity assay, von Willebrand Antigen (VW: Ag), Ristocetin co factor vWF: RiCoF activity and platelet function test.
The range of age was from 1 month to 57 years, with mean age 8.424±8.623 years and median age of 6.5years. The male to female ratio was 1.1:1. The most common age group was in the range of 1-10 years (46.45%). Family history was positive in 55.07% of patients (P >0.05). The consanguinity was found in 76.95% of the families studied (P <0.0001). The most prevalent InBD was von Willebrand disease (42.98%) with majority type 3VWD (86.4%). The second most prevalent was thrombasthenia (36.71%) and the majority had Glanzmann’s thrombosthenia (86.2%). Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) were observed in 6.25% of patients and the most common factor deficiency was FVII.
Consanguinity is high in patients with inherited bleeding disorders in Iraq, leading to emergence of life-threatening autosomal recessive inherited diseases. Genetic counselling is recommended besides education and awareness to minimize such rare illnesses in the community.