In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the trend in the number of patients admitted for maintenance hemodialysis is on the rise. The identification of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) ensures adequate primary and secondary preventive measures geared at reducing the burden of CKD in low-resource settings. A family history of CKD is an established risk factor for CKD in high-income countries. However, data on family predisposition to CKD is scarce in the literature on SSA.
The current study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in family relatives of a Cameroonian population of hemodialysis patients (HDP) followed-up in a major hemodialysis referral center in Cameroon.
The current cross-sectional study was conducted over four months on a consecutive sample of first-degree family relatives of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at the hemodialysis unit of the General Hospital of Yaoundé. For each participating family relative, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical data, and biological data including fasting blood glucose, proteinuria, and serum creatinine were collected.
A total of 82 first-degree family relatives of HDP were recruited. The prevalence of CKD among the participants was 15.8%. The main identified risk factors for CKD were age (P=0.0015), female gender (P=0.0357), hypertension (P=0.0004), regular intake of herbal remedies (P=0.0214), and diabetes mellitus (P=0.0019).
Overall, the current findings suggest an urgent need for population education, routine screening of CKD, and the identification of risk factors in first-degree family relatives of HDP in Cameroon.