فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Sina Mohagheghi, Zohreh Khajehahmadi, Heidar Tavilani* Pages 26-30
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to the accumulation of fat in the liver tissue that is usually associated with metabolic disorders. Traditionally, the disease is regarded as a spectrum of pathological conditions ranging from simple steatosis (SS) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatic fibrosis with progression to cirrhosis. However, so far, there is no available explanation for the disease progression. Several signaling pathways such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, hedgehog (HH), and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) signaling are attributed to the NAFLD pathogenesis. TGF-β1 pathway component expression aligns with HH pathway ligands expression elevate in NASH cirrhosis while they decrease in SS. YAP and TAZ are two transcriptional co-activators from the Hippo signaling pathway. Similarly, the TAZ level (but not YAP1) is higher in NASH cirrhosis compared to SS. In addition, these three signaling pathways have little molecular similarity but their changes are totally similar in SS and NASH cirrhosis. The present review discusses the main changes in the expression of TGF-β, HH, and YAP/ TAZ pathway components in SS and NASH cirrhosis. It is hoped that these data provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiology of NAFLD.
    Keywords: Amphiregulin, Hedgehog, Hippo signaling pathway, Liver cirrhosis, Non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease, Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • Marzie Farimani, Narges Mehrabi, Azar Pirdehghan, Maryam Bahmanzadeh* Pages 31-36
    Background
    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an innovative therapy in reproductive medicine. Although its mechanisms of action have remained unknown, G-CSF seems to be effective in the case of recurrent abortion or implantation failure and thin endometrium.
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to investigate whether subcutaneous administration of G-CSF has any effect on pregnancy outcome after assisted reproductive technology (ART).
    Methods
    Fifty women with male infertility factors undergoing ART treatment were enrolled and stimulated with the standard long protocol. The G-CSF group of women received one dose of subcutaneous G-CSF (Filgrastim, 300 µg/1 mL) on the day of embryo transfer and again two days later while the placebo group received normal saline.
    Results
    Seventeen patients had a positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin concentration after embryo transfer (8 and 9 in G-CSF and placebo groups, respectively) although the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, spontaneous abortion occurred in three patients (1 patient in the G-CSF group vs. 2 patients in the placebo group).
    Conclusion
    Overall, although G-CSF failed to affect the endometrial thickness, as well as implantation, or clinical pregnancy rates, a lower prevalence of abortion in G-CSF group may be due to the positive effect of G-CSF administration on the endometrium as compared to the placebo group.
    Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technology, Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor, Miscarriage, Implantation
  • Hamid Heidary, Farzin Firozian, Sara Soleimani Asl, Akram Ranjbar* Pages 37-43
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) against paraquat (PQ)-induced liver injury in rats.
    Methods
    Thirty-two male rats were divided into four 8-member groups and treated intraperitoneally with PQ and/or CeNPs for 14 days. Group 1 received PQ (5 mg/kg/d), group 2 received CeNPs (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/d), group 3 received a combination of PQ (5 mg/kg/d) and CeNPs (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/d), and group 4 (control group) received saline solution. Serum samples along with liver tissue samples were collected from all the rats. Oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers including total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, total thiol groups, DNA damage, and nitric oxide levels were determined. Histological samples were also analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining slides.
    Results
    Levels of oxidative stress and hepatic tissue damage were significantly higher in the PQ group compared to the control group. CeNPs at a dose of 15 mg/kg showed the antioxidant activity and compromised the PQ-induced damage.
    Conclusion
    In the scenario tested in this study, CeNPs could reduce the levels of OS, as well as hepatic damage induced by PQ.
    Keywords: Cerium oxide nanoparticle, Paraquat, Oxidative stress, Liver
  • Iraj Salehi, Ebrahim Zarrinkalam, Fatemeh Mirzaei, Ebrahim Abbasi *, Kamal Ranjbar, Sara Soleimani Pages 44-49
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance, endurance, and concurrent exercise on oxidative stress markers and histological changes of the intestine after morphine withdrawal in rats.
    Methods
    A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6) including healthy control, withdrawal (rat received morphine for 21 days and 8 weeks of withdrawal period), withdrawal + endurance exercises, withdrawal + resistance exercises, and withdrawal + concurrent exercises. The rats practiced endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercises for 10 weeks. Then, their intestines were removed and used for biochemical and histological analysis. Next, several factors were measured such as total protein levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS). Finally, the morphological alteration of intestine was examined under the light microscope.
    Results
    Morphine withdrawal significantly increased the levels of MDA in the intestine of withdrawal rats compared to those of the control group while endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise reduced the MDA levels in the intestine. In addition, morphine withdrawal led to a decrease in TAC and GSH levels in the intestine compared to control rats whereas endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise noticeably increased TAC and GSH levels. Interestingly, the change in the concurrent group was more significant. Moreover, the levels of TOS demonstrated a significant increase in the addicted rat as compared to the control group. Conversely, endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise significantly decreased TOS levels and the reduction was more significant in the concurrent group. Finally, the intestine of withdrawal rat was morphologically abnormal while it restored by the exercise.
    Conclusion
    Overall, endurance, resistance, and concurrent exercise significantly normalized oxidative stress and the morphological changes of the intestine in withdrawal rats.
    Keywords: Morphine, Reduced glutathione, Rat, Oxidative stress, Intestine
  • Judith Gwladys *, Jean Pierre Nda Mefo’o, Cécile Okalla, Eveline Ngouadjeu, Catherine Akono, Gérard Beyiha, Marie Solange, Dieudonné Adiogo Pages 50-55
    Background
    Electrophoresis of serum proteins is an orientation examination routinely used in clinical practice. For a few years, agarose gel electrophoresis has tended to be replaced with capillary electrophoresis owing to an increase in the accuracy of results. However, this technique is uncommon and is not widely used in Cameroon.
    Objectives
    The research aimed at studying the electrophoretic profile of serum proteins using capillary technique among patients attending the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon.
    Methods
    Capillary electrophoresis was used to carry out tests on blood samples from any inpatients and outpatients and fasting for 8-12 hours. Capillary electrophoresis of serum samples was used for the separation of proteins into six fractions and the total protidemia of each serum samples was determined using the Biuret method. Results were interpreted by observing the shape of curves and quantitative variations in each fraction of the different serum proteins.
    Results
    A total of 311 patients participated in the study. The sampled population aged 50±18 years on average and consisted of 55.3% men and 44.7% women. All capillary electrophoresis profiles presented six protein fractions, namely, albumin, alpha (1 and 2), beta (1 and 2) and gamma globulins. Pathological disorders were diagnosed in 290 patients and 21 patients had normal results. Inflammatory syndromes accounted for 63.34% and monoclonal gammopathies for 10.29% the main pathological disorder identified.
    Conclusion
    Capillary electrophoresis provides a more precise identification of biological syndromes and clear distinction of the six fractions of each protein. Monoclonal profiles and inflammatory syndromes were well detected. A prevalence of 10.29% was determined for gammopathies.
    Keywords: Electrophoresis profile, capillary technique, clinical utility, Douala
  • Kelly Oriakhi*, Kissinger Orumwensodia, Patrick Uadia Pages 56-61
    Background
    Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) is an African plant with ethnobotanical uses.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extract and fractions (F) [n-hexane (HEX-F), dichloromethane (DCM-F) and, ethyl acetate (EA-F)] of T. conophorum seeds.
    Methods
    Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity study were carried out using DPPH, ABTs radical scavenging assays, nitric oxide inhibitory and reducing potential assays.
    Results
    Methanol extract and its fractions contain phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids content were significantly higher in EA-F and crude methanol extract compared to other fractions. Crude methanol and EA-F contain higher concentrations of tannin while hexane fraction had the lowest tannin content but relatively higher proanthocyanidin content compared to other fractions. The antioxidant activity study showed that both methanol crude extract and fractions of T. conophorum seeds have significant activities for DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, ferric reducing antioxidant potential, nitric oxide inhibitory activities, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging for. DPPH radical scavenging activities of EA-F showed the lowest IC50 of 33.11 µg/mL, followed by Hex-F, DCM-F and crude methanol extract with IC50 of 33.43, 42.09 and 45.44 µg/mL, respectively, when compared to ascorbic acid with IC50 of 17.08 µg/mL.
    Conclusion
    The study showed that T. conophorum seed is a rich source of secondary metabolites, which may be responsible for its antioxidant activities
    Keywords: Phytochemicals, Antioxidants, Tetracarpidium conophorum, African walnut